A vegan and a dairy veterinarian walk into a barn

Readers, I am very excited to be bringing you this collaborative post. To give you some background, it has become more important to me lately to address my biases in dialogues surrounding food and try to be open to multiple perspectives. It occurred to me that I have been writing and preaching about what agricultural practices are better for the environment—namely, limiting animal agriculture—without ever having grown or raised anything myself, which didn’t sit well with me. And, like most of us, I tend to seek out food media with which I already agree, consciously or subconsciously. I wanted to consult someone with a different point of view, and I knew just the right person. A friend of mine from college is an aspiring dairy veterinarian, now in her first year of vet school. She’s grown up in agriculture her whole life, and worked for a long time on a dairy farm before college. She is concerned about animal welfare as much or more than any vegan I know; I was just telling her that I would never dare deny how much she cares about her cows. I had never before talked to her about my views on animal agriculture, but when I hesitantly approached her about interviewing her for my blog, I was happy to find that she was eager to share her side of the story to an unconventional audience, and she enlisted her friend, a dairy nutritionist, to bring even more expertise to the task. Their study and careers are as much based on scientific evidence as mine, which can be much more controversial than you would hope. But I am coming to believe more and more that progress in the food system will only happen if we all start listening to each other, particularly farmers and health/sustainability advocates. The answers my friend and her colleague gave to my questions were incredibly thorough, so I warn you that this post is quite a bit longer than usual. They gave me a run for my money, especially during the remarkably level-headed conversation I had with my friend afterward, which I think I will have to write a follow-up post about. I don’t think that I’ll be returning to yogurt anytime soon, but I definitely have a lot to think about, and I hope you will too.

I think many people have a perception that cows in so-called factory farms (would you call them CAFOs?) live in an overcrowded, “unnatural” living situation. In your experience, what is the usual living arrangement, so to speak, for cows on industrial dairy farms? What practices are different between grain-fed vs. grass-fed cattle? Do you think the typical set-up and diet generally promotes the health of the animals?

First, CAFO stands for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation. This just means that there are a specific number of animals on that particular site. For dairy cattle, anything with under 200 head is defined as an AFO. From 200 to 500 is a medium CAFO and above 500 is a large CAFO. These designations simply define the operation and there are slightly different regulations for each one. The regulations are in place to ensure good animal practices and proper steps taken towards being stewards for the environment. They are extensive and farmers are inspected at least yearly to ensure that they are up to code. While a consumer may think a dairy farm smells, the farmer is guaranteed to be taking care of his farm and property. Anyone who ships milk (exception here would be some Amish and Mennonite farms) are compliant with the regulations.

The typical living arrangement for most dairy farms is a large pen or dirt lot, depending on location, where the cows are free to move around, sleep, eat, drink, and socialize. Typically, two or three times a day the lactating cows are moved the milking parlor where they are milk. There is extensive research and there are very good practices in place to ensure cow comfort and promote health and production. The farmer is not alone in ensuring this. The veterinarian and nutritionist for the farm are often there to offer advice and expertise.

The difference between a grain-fed vs. grass-fed depends on the operations. Conventional dairy farms are typically fed a diet that is 50-70% forage, meaning corn silage, hay, haylage, or whatever forages are grown in the area. In California you will see more sorghum and dry hay, in Wisconsin you will see more corn silage and haylage. A grass-fed herd means the cows are free to graze in a pasture. To be labeled as organic, the cow’s diet must be 70% grazing. Grass-fed does not have a set level of grazing. Some herds may let the cows out to pasture at night in the summer to take advantage of the cooler temperatures and some may be out to pasture all day. There are advantages and disadvantages to both grain-fed and grass-fed. Most larger operations are grain-fed because the farmer is better able to control the cows’ environment to keep them all dry and comfortable. They are also able to collect the cows’ excrement better in a barn and dispose of it in a more environmentally safe method. Both set ups are safe for the cattle and promote good health. It mostly depends on location, size, climate, and management to determine the best method for each operation. Typically, contained and grain-fed leads to the best environmental stewardship and the cows are able to spend more time lying and sleeping rather than foraging for their food.

One of the reasons the industry has moved to these styles of stewardship is welfare. We have a greater ability to ensure all the animals basic needs are being met, and we have the resources to make changes as we learn more and more about the animals we love.

There is a growing movement of people concerned about the sustainability of animal agriculture, beef and dairy in particular. Do you have any concerns about sustainability in dairy and/or beef production and how do you think they can be addressed? 

Cows are the ultimate recycler. While they do drink more water and their food sources take up land and water as well, they are using grains that are not usable by humans. They can also take non-protein nitrogen and turn it into protein that we can then use. It’s pretty remarkable. They also take a lot of our byproducts and turn them into milk and beef, items we can use. In California a lot of dairies feed byproducts from almonds, carrots, citrus, soybeans and many more from all the different industries there. The waste that humans can’t use from the foods we grow can be fed to cows and they in turn give milk and meat. Cows’ milk is also the most nutrient dense liquid and compared to other nutritious drinks like soy drink, orange juice, or even wine, it has a much smaller environmental foot print. There is still ongoing research on what more farmers can do to be even more environmentally friendly. For example, some farms are recycling the cow’s manure into a dried bedding that they can use for the cows again. There is actually a lot of really cool technology and research that is in operation daily on these farms!

Could you describe what scenario or reasons would prompt a livestock vet to prescribe antibiotics? From your perspective, does the extent of antibiotic use in animal agriculture present any dangers to humans? 

In regards to antibiotics, think about when a physician prescribes you antibiotics. A pathogenic microbe has flourished in one of your body systems, to the point where you are ill. While we can do a lot to help our bodies fight off these ‘bugs’ (drink those fluids!), these illnesses can become very serious and potentially fatal, and we don’t want it to get to this point. So, once you finally feel yucky enough to go to the physician and they run their diagnostics, they prescribe you an antibiotic that’s going to kill off that bug before the illness gets serious, and so you’re not suffering for too much longer. The same principle applies to animals, and since most of my experience is with dairy cattle, I’ll put it in cow terms. Cows are prey animals, which means they are going to hide any illness or injury for as long as possible to not appear weak to observing predators. So by the time she’s showing clinical signs, she’s really feeling bad (like you finally deciding you feel crappy enough to go to a physician). This is the point where I start worrying about animal suffering. And as herd animals, cows are housed together. When you get sick, all the sudden your whole family is sick. And all the students at a school or university all manage to be sick at the same time, because we all give our bugs to each other. The same thing can happen in any barn, no matter the size. So we’re also concerned about the health and happiness of the rest of the herd. Therefore the usual course of action is to try and figure out what it is , and give our sick cow antibiotics to help her immune system fight whats making her sick and keep it from spreading. One thing to remember is that antibiotics are expensive; we just can’t afford to use them without real purpose. Not giving an animal antibiotics when she needs them is against animal welfare. Too much talk about antibiotics is occurring without thought to the impact on the animal.

There are a lot of numbers thrown around when we talk about antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. There are a few things we have to think about when we looks at these numbers.

1)         They are extrapolations. These numbers are based off of the amount of antibiotics sold. Even in human hospitals, antibiotic use is not well documented. We cannot know whats being used, human or animal, unless we’re tracking it (which is a challenge).

2)        There are WAY more animals than humans. So theres going to be more sick animals. And some of these sick animals are pretty big. Like, 1500lbs big. So that animal (your average Holstein cow) is going to need a larger dose than a 150lbs human. When you factor in the 10x difference in weight and apply it to the almost 90 million cows currently in the US, that’s a lot of animal. And that’s only cattle! This has an effect on that number of antibiotics sold.

3)         We also need to think about density. Theres a reason why hospitals are the biggest producers of antibiotic resistant bacteria; there are a lot of sick people who need antibiotics all in one place.

Antibiotic resistance will be a concern as long as antibiotics are being used ANYWHERE; that’s just how it works. Do we need to be conscientious? Absolutely. Producers are already using less antibiotics (particularly the ones that people often call ‘growth enhancing’) because of better management of our animals through agricultural research. But I don’t consider antibiotic use in animal agriculture the biggest threat to humans by way of resistance by far, despite the scary and misleading, questionably accurate numbers.

Antibiotics in animal products, I’ll cut to the chase; they aren’t there. The products of animals given antibiotics (meat, milk) cannot enter the consumer market within a certain time frame, until the antibiotics have been processed and broken down. There’s a lot that goes into these ‘withdrawal times’, so your steak does not come with a side of penicillin.(we could do a whole blog about antibiotics alone, this is me trying to condense, ha)

In your experience, how do dairy farmers dispose of the cows’ waste? Do you believe there is any room for improvement in this area? 

The excrement in collected typically. In a tie-stall it is in gutter that run out to a pit that is emptied and used as fertilizer at least once a year. In free-stalls there are a couple different ways for it to be collected but it is usually used the same way. Some farms recycle it into bedding solids. Most is used as fertilizer, recycling the nutrients back into the soil to be used by crops.

Are there any common misconceptions that you want to address that you haven’t already?

That animal agriculture is inherently cruel. One of the things we have to remember is that a suffering animal does not produce, whether its milk, meat, you name it. Therefore it is not only emotionally and ethically desirable for us to care for our animals to the best of our abilities, but economically desirable. So it isn’t profitable to be cruel, which I think is the general assumption. Happy cows means happy people means happy business which then in turn leads to the cash flow to keep those cows happy. It’s all circular.

I worry that there is a divide between health/sustainability advocates and farmers. I would think that if/when there are problems in our food system, the best solutions would come from cooperation between all stakeholders. Do you have any ideas about how we can bridge this gap? What do you think is the best way for the public to get accurate information about where their food comes from? 

Farmers are huge proponents of sustainability and health. What they are producing goes on their own dinner table.. I think one of our divides is assuming farmers aren’t concerned. We have to stop pointing fingers and spreading false information on the media. It’s almost daily that I see false information about agriculture spread on facebook. That scares me. I don’t think people outside the industry see all the work that is actively happening to improve sustainability and public health. And I don’t know how to fix it, and I think this is your million dollar question.



Toward a Greener Diet

It’s getting to be that time of year again — Food Day is right around the corner! As I wrote last year, Food Day (officially October 24th) is a celebration of and opportunity to advocate for sustainable, health-promoting, and fair food policies. And for the second time, I’m spearheading the festivities on my university’s campus next week. This year the theme of the national Food Day campaign is “Toward a Greener Diet.” I wanted to take this blog post to share what a greener diet means to me, because I truly think this needs to be the foundation of the rebuilding of the food system.

A greener diet is a diet that is more plant-based and less animal-based.

A greener diet is healthier.

Because most of our livestock are routinely fed antibiotics that are promoting the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

Because the unsanitary living conditions of the animals and the fault-ridden food inspection process enable such pathogens to travel from the farm to our plates.

Because the people who develop the least chronic disease and live the longest, healthiest lives are the ones who eat the most minimally processed, plant-based foods.

A greener diet is kinder.

Because whether or not you believe eating animal products is inherently morally wrong (I actually don’t, for the record), there is no excuse for the undeniably cruel way most livestock are treated by the factory farm system.

A greener diet is more sustainable.

Because animal agriculture is one of the leading contributors to deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions.

Because one gram of protein from beef takes 18 gallons of water to produce while one gram of protein from beans takes 3 gallons of water to produce.

Because we could feed millions more people at lower cost if the land used to grow food for livestock were used to grow food for humans.

Because animal agriculture produces more toxic waste than we have room to dispose of safely.

Because if the world continues to consume animal products at the current and projected rates, we will soon run out of land and resources on which to raise the animals.

Because even pastured-raised animal products are unsustainable, even if they are more natural.

Because avoiding animal products is by far the single most effective action you can take to mitigate climate change.

I’ve transitioned over time to a completely plant-based diet for all of these reasons. I started to eat fewer and fewer animal products when I learned how much better a plant-based diet is for one’s health. I stopped eating meat entirely when I could no longer escape the truth about the way livestock are treated. I completely stopped eating fish, eggs, and dairy as well when I could no longer justify the unmeasurable destruction animal agriculture causes to the climate, ecosystems, and natural resources.

I’m certainly not demanding that you all become vegan tomorrow, but I don’t think it’s too much to ask that you take this upcoming Food Day as an opportunity to open yourself up to the idea of making some “greener” changes in the way you eat. It’s all about the simple goal of aligning our actions with our values — simple, but clearly not easy.

A Plant Strong Declaration Part II

You probably don’t remember, but my second post ever on this blog almost a year and a half ago detailed my commitment to minimizing the amount of animal products in my diet, completely eliminating terrestrial meat (poultry, beef, lamb, pork) but still eating small amounts of dairy, eggs, and fish on a regular basis. This has been very easy for me, thanks to the excellent dining services at my university and the open-mindedness of my family. I have been able to maintain a diet that is based mainly on grains, legumes, nuts, fruits, and vegetables. That being said, I’ve never really gone out of my way to avoid relatively healthy food items containing a bit of dairy and eggs if there wasn’t a vegan option, and I would default to fish if there wasn’t a healthy vegetarian option, like most of the meals I ate in France this past summer (man, do they eat a lot of cheese, butter, and eggs over there). I won’t go into detail here about why I came to that conclusion back in May 2014; you can go back and read it if you’re interested.

Recently though, I have begun to feel like even this amount of animal product consumption doesn’t align with my values, partly because even farms that produce pasture-raised meat and dairy are not better for the environment, from my point of view, because they actually use more resources and produce more greenhouse gases per ounce of food produced than inhumane factory farms. As for fish, at the current levels of world seafood consumption, we as a society are unintentionally depleting the oceans and destroying marine ecosystems for a food that is not necessary for our survival or health. Even if I don’t have reason to believe that the world has to give up animal products entirely to ensure the sustainability of the food system, the amount of meat and dairy consumed per person that would be sustainable (maybe a couple of ounces per week) is so small that I want to move as much money as possible out of that industry and into plant-based food, starting with me. The other thing that appeals to me about a completely plant-based diet is that most of the weight gain-promoting foods that I tend to crave have dairy or eggs in them (i.e. baked goods and desserts), so I would naturally eat less of those foods and be less worried about gaining weight (although I do acknowledge that I should be a lot less concerned with my weight than I am, but I am far from immune to body image problems). Of course, there are wonderfully decadent plant-based desserts out there, but it does make dessert even more special and rare.

So from here on out, I’m going 99% plant-based. That means that for all intents and purposes I will tell people that I’m a vegan, but I’m not necessarily never going to eat an animal product again. For starters I don’t plan to avoid honey, which some vegans do, but from what I know about honey production it doesn’t conflict with my values — if you have information to the contrary, please comment on this post. But I also feel that it’s not necessary or desirable to miss out on certain traditional dishes, especially for Jewish holidays, that contain animal products, like the chicken broth in the matzo ball soup at Passover, or the bagels and lox to break the fast on Yom Kippur. But those occasions occur a handful times per year, which is probably, to be honest, the level of worldwide animal product consumption I envision ideally if we really want to stabilize and reverse climate change and truly nourish the growing world population in a sustainable way.

I want to add a caveat: I know that it is far easier for me to make this transition than it is for most, and I am under no grand illusions that the public can make this sudden switch to a whole foods, plant-based diet. I am fortunate enough to have means, an education, an educated family and peer group, and particularly convenient access to fresh produce and satisfying and nutritious vegan meals, all of which have encouraged me gradually toward this decision. I also happen to really love vegetables and vegan food, if it’s cooked well and has enough variety.

I know that I cannot expect most to see the food system from my point of view, and certainly not right away. I am not only committing to (99%) veganism here in this post, but also to never try to make someone feel guilty about the way they eat. But I will continue to write about the injustices and abuses I learn about, and I will certainly answer honestly when someone asks me why I eat the way I do, in the hopes that more people will realize that the conventions of the food system as it is now conflict with their values. I can only hope that through my own and others’ advocacy that the cultural paradigm shift towards a less processed, more plant-based diet will gradually continue in the years to come.

The Hidden Costs of Cheap Food

One of the first barriers to eating healthy people always bring up is the cost. Unfortunately, processed food, per calorie, does tend to be cheaper than whole foods. And even when the whole food is cheaper monetarily, it costs a lot more effort and time to prepare than the processed food. In my perfect world, subsidies for meat and corn and soy would be removed and fruits and vegetables would be subsidized (among other policy changes) so that a healthy diet would be much more affordable, but right now the question is not only why does eating healthfully cost more, but also why are we willing to spend only so little on food? Americans spend the lowest percentage of their income on food (about 10% on average) of any country in the world. We all understand that food is a basic necessity, and hopefully you understand that healthy food is absolutely imperative in order to have a chance at leading a healthy life. I can only speak for myself, but there are many luxuries that I would forfeit if it meant I could live a longer, happier life freer from chronic disease.

I think it goes back to that whole immediate gratification thing. We see the merit of cheap food to be saving money and time now and being immediately satisfied by whatever fat, sugar, and salt-filled creation we happen to be buying. But if you think that price of that burger is really all you’re paying for convenient, tasty, empty calories, think again. Maybe minimally processed food costs a few more dollars a day now, but industrially produced animal products, processed food, and even industrially produced fruits and vegetables are costing us a lot more in the long run:

Obesity and related chronic diseases: The majority of Americans are regularly and sometimes almost exclusively eating these cheap animal products and nutritionally devoid calories that in turn encourage them to overeat and develop obesity, heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, and a host of other problems. The health care necessary to manage those problems costs a lot more than the price of a healthier diet, not just for the individual, but for the taxed public.

Antibiotic resistance: One of the ways farmers give us super cheap meat is by increasing the growth rate of livestock by routinely feeding them antibiotics regardless of whether the animals are sick. As I have written before, this practice promotes the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that cause nasty infections in humans that may soon be impossible to cure. Unlike obesity, antibiotic resistance is an acute public health concern. Every day more people are dying of antibiotic-resistant infections—is that worth cheaper meat to you?

Farm and foodservice worker abuse and poverty: Another unsavory way we get cheap meat, produce, and restaurant food is the downright abuse and underpayment of farm and foodservice workers. For those foodservice workers who are paid the federal minimum wage, that is not even a living wage, especially that of tipped workers, which is much lower. Often, though, undocumented immigrants are working in meatpacking establishments and picking fruits and vegetables in the field, and farmers can get away with paying them less than the minimum wage for backbreaking, unsanitary, and sometimes dangerous work. And as I have also written before, this business systematically discriminates against women and people of color.

Livestock abuse: There are a whole slew of shockingly awful practices that abuse millions of animals in what are commonly called “factory farms” across the U.S. These technically termed “concentrated animal feeding operations” pack thousands of animals together in the tightest quarters imaginable where they barely have space to breathe, let alone perform any of their instinctual, natural behaviors. Chickens in this situation essentially stand crowded around in their own filth pecking each other, sometimes to death. When it comes time for slaughter, the typical procedure is anything but humane. I have a more detailed post on this topic too.

Pollution, ecological disruption, and climate change: The current system of industrial agriculture that is designed to get the highest yield of crop and meat at the lowest cost is also perfectly designed to pollute our air and water and increase greenhouse gas emissions and natural resource depletion. Chemical fertilizers destroy the soil’s natural potential for anything to grow and runoff into bodies of water leading to dead zones. Chemical pesticides are almost certainly poisoning farmworkers and beneficial bugs and probably at some level poisoning us eaters. The amount of waste that comes from factory farms is so great that it cannot be disposed of sanitarily, so it too ends up polluting the air and water. When these practices unintentionally cause the endangerment of any species of plant or animal, that is a disruption to an ecosystem whose consequences we cannot predict. Conventional farming, especially meat production, also leads to the use of monstrous amounts of water and fossil fuels and consequently proportional carbon dioxide emissions. Factory farmed cows also contribute directly and greatly to methane emissions. These greenhouse gases are unequivocally accelerating climate change and making this planet harder and harder to survive on. Maybe our demand for cheap food won’t affect how long we can survive on earth, but it is surely shortening that time for future generations.

I do believe it is the responsibility of our government to make healthy, ecologically sound, and socially just food the default choice, but even then truly sustainable food may cost more than we’d like, when you account for the costs of preventing all of the things I just described. I guess it depends on your priorities.

As always, I welcome your comments. Thanks for reading!

A Call to Action on Food: What Can You Do?

I received a comment on my last post asking what was my call to action for individuals in terms of what can they do to change the food system. This post is my reply.

If what I write about inspires you to take action to change our flawed and backwards food system, this is what I challenge you to do:

  • Adopt Meatless Mondays, or any meatless day or days, really. Any systematic reduction in the amount of animal products that we consume will have a positive effect on human health (including cancer, antibiotic resistant infections, and other foodborne pathogens), animal welfare, natural resource use, greenhouse gas emissions, and worker justice.
  • Only buy products that you can feel good about eating. This particular challenge is quite overwhelming, and I certainly don’t know that everything I eat was produced by an establishment whose practices I completely approve. But I gradually try more and more all the time. Websites like http://www.humaneitarian.org can help you find out where you can purchase meat you can feel good about and help you decipher label claims like “cage free” and “humanely raised”. As far as worker justice is concerned, you might have to do a little more research; one great organization that can point you toward socially just shopping is the Coalition of Immokalee Workers.
  • Buy locally, which will also mean seasonally. Don’t be fooled by some modern farmer’s markets where the produce actually comes from far away. Try to buy it directly from the farmer. A farm share (assuming its local) can be a great way to eat whole, seasonal produce and prepare it yourself. If you don’t know, a purchasing a farm share entitles you to a certain amount of produce, and sometimes dairy or meat, each week from a particular farm or farms. It’s a lot of food each week usually, but you don’t get to pick what they give you, which actually encourages you to cook new healthy foods!
  • Vote with your fork. This means that you should encourage your lawmakers, locally and federally, to take a stance on important food issues, and vote for the politicians that will represent your food values. Many non-profit organizations that work on food issues, such as Center for Science in the Public Interest and Center for Food Safety send out “action alerts” to subscribers to let them know when there are petitions they can sign or critical moments to contact legislators, and they usually give you a template message to send.
  • Most importantly, spread the word. The only way to get more people to care about these issues is to make sure they know about them. Start a dialogue with the people you care about, tell them why you choose to eat real. If you’re going to encourage them to make changes, start with small ones. Or, if you’re verbally inclined, you can write about food, like I do. It’s not very difficult to start a blog these days.

I acknowledge that in the grand scheme of things, any one individual adopting these practices won’t tip the scales of the food movement; however, if more and more people move in this direction it could really make a difference. As I always say, you have to start somewhere.

The most or least guilt-ridden animal eating experience?

I’m sorry my posts haven’t been as frequent this week, and they probably won’t be for another week or so. I’m heading back to school next Sunday, so it’s been a very busy time getting ready. But I really wanted to post about this trip my family and I took this past weekend, because it’s prompted some contradictions for me in relation to how I feel about food, and it’s sort of appropriate for this Meatless Monday. We took a road trip to National Harbor, MD for its annual Crab and Beer festival.


You see, my dad’s favorite food is hardshell crabs. They are quite delicious when they are good, but he (and I) really likes it for the experience, I think. When you eat crabs, you sit there with the whole crab, in its shell, and crack it open with your little mallet and have to dig the meat out with your fingers. It’s thus different from other eating experiences because it takes so much longer and involves working for your food. It leaves a lot of time for talking while your hands are working as well, so it’s a very communal activity, no question about it. It’s also very messy, as you can imagine. I think I still have Old Bay under my fingernails.


(In case you were confused, I have still been including some fish in my diet, so I refer to myself as a pescatarian (vegetarian+fish). I think when I go back to school I will lay off the fish, though, because the dining hall’s fish is nothing to write home about. )

I’ve always liked the taste of crabmeat, but actually didn’t warm up to the whole hardshell experience until recently. I was pretty averse to the mess before, but for some reason now I don’t mind. Anyway, so we got to our tent at the festival, and our platinum VIP tickets (thanks Dad) got us unlimited crabs. However, they served them 6 at a time, so I got my tray. They were really good crabs–not as large as advertised, but what can ya do?


That’s my brother and me enjoying our crabbies. I only got through one tray before feeling satisfied. I think my dad had 3 or 4! It took us all probably an hour and a half to eat, just to give you an idea of the length of this process. Anyway, the whole thing was really fun–there was live music and lots of cool vendors selling clothes, jewelry, and souvenirs. If you’re into crabs, I’d recommend it. I’d love to do something like that again with friends.

So what does this have to do with food movement issues? Well, as you might imagine, this experience brought up a question of animal rights for me–that is, whether animals have the right to life. When eating crabs whole, as opposed to in the form of a crab cake, for instance, it is impossible to separate yourself from the notion that this was once a living creature. When I bring up the subject of eating hard shells to other people, some say they don’t like it for just this reason, even though they will eat crab meat other ways. It reminds me how far away we have been removed from the food system. Whether or not you believe that animals may be morally hunted or bred to be eaten, most people don’t like to think about the death of the animal on their plate. If the system were more transparent, perhaps this consciousness would occur more frequently, and perhaps people would be less inclined to eat meat, which would be a welcome change, in my opinion. Please know this: whether you crack the crab open yourself or eat a crab cake, a crab (or more) has died to be your food. 

Now, for some twisted reason, I actually feel better about eating crabs whole than eating crab meat, or any meat, that has been processed so as to be unrecognizable from its live origins. I think it’s because it feels more honest to me, while so much about animal agriculture is hidden from consumers. That sounds really weird, I know. But think about it–if you always had to pluck your chicken before eating it, wouldn’t you eat chicken less often? Is that even an appropriate analogy? How can we make people more conscious of the consequences of their food choices?